How do we (PHYSICIANS) obtain our ideas and knowledge on the surrounding world? First of all, we observe phenomenons and then, by generalizing the received data, form laws. As a rule, these rules are formed with mathematics. By analyzing these laws, we can PREDICT certain phenomenons and estimate its QUANTITATIVE value. Experimental confirmation of a predicted phenomenon with its quantitative concurrency, on the one hand, confirms the law itself, and on the other hand it creates a reason to comprehend and interpret this law. Thus were received our concepts on Solar system with help of Newton mechanics, our ideas on atoms and molecules with help of quantum mechanics.
However, as philosophers say, “process of cognition is infinite”. Within macroworld there were discovered phenomenons that cannot be explained by means of classic mechanics of Newton. Special and General theory of relation emerged. Our ideas about space as an empty storage for objects and phenomenons changed. Besides, a road stretched from macroworld to microworld: it turned out that “energy” and “mass” are different forms of the same essence, in other words, one can transform into another, and the opposite. Nuclear reactions in our power facilities are an example of this statement.
In macroworld a lot of new elementary particles were discovered, and they can emerge and disappear in processes that we must explain, thus formulating and trying new laws in practice. An important part in these processes is played by environment that was earlier considered as “nothing” – vacuum. It turned out that vacuum is a complex system within which virtual particles are born and die. If they are communicated with the required energy, they can be observed as real objects. Processes that take place in vacuum through interaction with real particles, are subjects of a strong mathematic analysis. As a result of this analysis we can calculate QUANTITATIVELY effects that are observed experimentally and are also described in QUANTITIES. Concurrency of these results confirms our ideas on vacuum. For example, Lamb shift of levels in energetic spectres of atoms (§ 3.2.5°). It is a revealed abnormal magnet moment of an electron. Concurrence between the calculated and evaluated value up to the sixth digit!
Further development of vacuum theory has led us to conclude that it is asymmetric, there is a certain field in it, interacting with which real particles obtain mass. The further discovery in hadron collider (constructed specifically for this purpose) of “quantum” to this field – Bose particle of Higgs (§ 3.3.2°), practical concurrence between its mass with the predicted theory allows us to suppose that our concepts on vacuum as “paramatter” have real sense.
That knowledge that we “obtained” on elementary particles and interactions between them has led us to the conclusion that characteristics of micro- and macro- Universe are largely connected and define each other. Sometimes it is illustrated in form of Ouroboros – a snake that swallows its own tail:
The currently existing model of Hot Universe is based upon the known characteristics of elementary particles and interactions between them. Experimental evidence of QUANTITATIVE predictions for this theory are red shift, relict radiation (for which theoretic estimations of temperature concur with the observed values), and primary nuclear synthesis.
We can agree with opinion of the author on that physicians, while constructing similarities between macro- and micro- world, related “beginning of our world” with a certain explosion (in analogue to other processes of explosive nature that take place often in the Universe, like birth of stars) thus making an incorrect generalization: narrowed down the whole visible and invisible Universe down to one expanding and contracting dot (§ 6.1). Hypothesis, stated in this work, do not conflict with facts, but make us look upon things differently.
To the question why elementary particles are exactly as they are, with such charges, mass, and spines, and not another, physicians have not yet found an answer. In this case philosophers might come to help as they suggested a philosophic guess on subphysical (subphoton) matter. It is possible that modern physics has come close to studying a completely different, not physical, but subphysical realty. It is possible that by discovering laws of subphysical matter, we shall understand why Our physical matter is designed this way, why we have exactly such stable elementary particles as proton and electron, and how they look in reality.
By this moment we only know that if electron mass was greater than difference between masses of neutron and proton, atoms of hydrogen could not exist, and they give emergence to everything. Luckily for us, mass of electron is almost three times smaller than this difference. If difference between mass of proton and neutron was greater than their connection energy in core of deuterium, existence of this core would be impossible, and it serves as beginning of nuclear reaction chain, in result of which all other chemicals are formed. Again, luckily, energy of connection exceeds difference between their mass almost by 1 MeV. If we refer to statistics on mass of elementary particles, mass of electron is the smallest, and it differs dramatically from the rest of them. We can consider is fluctuation (deviation from average value). Same applies to difference between mass of all isotopic multiplets. Let us present the results in graphs:
As you can see, difference between mass of proton and neutron is smaller than between all others. Is it also fluctuation? Is this situation accidental? Or did nature “calculated” what was required for matter to exist in such shape? And thus, we are observers. If there were other constants, the world would be different entirely… Speaking in language of the author, Our photon matter would not form (§§ 4.1.3°, 5.3).
Nowadays many physicians think that our “microscopic” brain is sometimes unable to imagine HOW certain processes happen in microworld. For example, one of the basic principles of quantum mechanics is the principle of superposition. How can one particle be SIMULTANEOUSLY present in several, often many different conditions? At the same time any experimental attempt, aimed to find out where this particle is located, disturbs this superposition instantly and takes this particle into a certain one condition, every time with the same probability of this condition. A quite interesting approach, explaining this phenomenon, is suggested in this work (§ 3.2.2°).
In his work “Structure of matter in concept of theoretic and experimental scientific philosophy” V.V. Vek, firstly, set up a question on basic principal possibility to construct demonstrative models of experimental particles(§ 5.1); secondly, makes a suggestion in demonstrative-descriptive expression on that elementary particles can represent a certain “whirlwind” that consists of triflingly small particles of a different, subphysical (or subphoton, in author’s language) matter. According to author’s opinion, “particles of subphoton matter” have superluminal motion and obtain other characteristics that differ from characteristics of particles from “Our physical matter”.
Such suggestion shows us structure of matter in a different light and encourages physicians to get down to checking the stated hypothesis seriously.
Summarizing the above-said, we should conclude that hypothesis, stated in this work, do not conflict with the existing facts, but, on the contrary, deepen our understanding on structure of matter.
Associate professor of department of theoretic physics and applied mathematics of Ural federal university, candidate of physical-mathematic science,
Вселенная вокруг нас и в нас самих. И не важно, в какую сторону мы копаем, мы движемся к ответу на вопрос о структуре материи
Владимир Век «Новая философия»
Universe is around us and within us. It is not relevant, in which direction we dig, we still move towards the answer to question on structure of matter