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Монографии, изданные в издательстве Российской Академии Естествознания

What Is Dyslexia?

Dyslexia can affect people differently. This depends, in part, upon the severity of the learning disability and the success of alternate learning methods. Some with dyslexia can have trouble with reading and spelling, while others struggle to write, or to tell left from right. Some children show few signs of difficulty with early reading and writing. But later on, they may have trouble with complex language skills, such as grammar, reading comprehension, and more in-depth writing.

Dyslexia can also make it difficult for people to express themselves clearly. It can be hard for them to use vocabulary and to structure their thoughts during conversation. Others struggle to understand when people speak to them. This isn’t due to hearing problems. Instead, it’s from trouble processing verbal information. It becomes even harder with abstract thoughts and non-literal language, such as jokes and proverbs.

All of these effects can have a big impact on a person’s self-image. Without help, children often get frustrated with learning. The stress of dealing with schoolwork often makes children with dyslexia lose the motivation to continue and overcome the hurdles they face.

What Are the Warning Signs?

The following are common signs of dyslexia in people of different ages. If you or someone you know displays these signs, it doesn’t necessarily mean you have a learning disability. But if troubles continue over time, consider testing for dyslexia.

Young Children

School-Age Children

Teenagers & Adults

Trouble with:

- Recognizing letters, matching letters to sounds, and blending sounds into speech

- Pronouncing words, for example saying “mawn lower” instead of “lawn mower”

- Learning and correctly using new vocabulary words

- Learning the alphabet, numbers, and days of the week or similar common word sequences

- Rhyming

Trouble with:

- Mastering the rules of spelling

- Remembering facts and numbers

- Handwriting or with gripping a pencil

- Learning and understanding new skills; instead, relying heavily on memorization

- Reading and spelling, such as reversing letters (d,b) or moving letters around (left, felt)

- Following a sequence of directions

- Trouble with word problems in math

Trouble with:

- Reading at the expected level

- Understanding non-literal language, such as idioms, jokes, or proverbs

- Reading aloud

- Organizing and managing time

- Trouble summarizing a story

- Learning a foreign language

- Memorizing

How Is Dyslexia Identified?

Trained professionals can identify dyslexia using a formal evaluation. This looks at a person’s ability to understand and use spoken and written language. It looks at areas of strength and weakness in the skills that are needed for reading. It also takes into account many other factors. These include family history, intellect, educational background, and social environment.

Reading and writing are key skills for daily living. However, it is important to also emphasize other aspects of learning and expression. Like all people, those with dyslexia enjoy activities that tap into their strengths and interests. For example, people with dyslexia may be attracted to fields that do not emphasize language skills. Examples are design, art, architecture, engineering, and surgery.

Match the terms with their definitions

Learning disability

significant learning problems in an academic area


special ability in a task, sport, etc., esp ability acquired by training


the act or process of acquiring knowledge, esp systematically during childhood and adolescence


the capacity for understanding; ability to perceive and comprehend meaning


a developmental disorder which can cause learning difficulty in one or more of the areas of reading, writing, and numeracy

High achievers

those who achieve a goal; In school, they would be students who get high marks, good grades


a disorder of the central nervous system characterized by partial or total loss of the ability to communicate, esp in speech or writing

Assistive Technology

assistive, adaptive, and rehabilitative devices for people with disabilities

mental retardation

the condition of having a low intelligence quotient (below 70)


the act or process of drawing conclusions from facts, evidence, etc

Put the verbs into the correct form

1. Researchers think that learning disabilities (to cause) by differences in how a person’s brain works

2. Children with learning disabilities can (to teach) ways to get around the learning disability

3. IEP also describes the special education services that (to provide) to meet those needs.

4. Psychological therapies may also (to use).

5. Much of what happens in a classroom (to base) on reading and writing

6. Learning disabilities tend (to diagnose) when children reach school age.

7. Other professionals such as speech and language therapists also may (to involve).

Say which of these statements are true, false or not given




children with learning disabilities cannot be high achievers

Supports or changes in the classroom (sometimes called accommodations) help most students with learning disabilities.

The most common treatment for learning disabilities is special education

Children with learning disabilities are lazy.

Dyslexia occurs among people of all economic and ethnic backgrounds

Learning disabilities tend to be diagnosed in adulthood

a child’s learning disabilities may need help at home as well as in school

Dyslexia can also make it difficult for people to express themselves clearly

Medication cannot be effective in helping children with LD

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