Научная электронная библиотека
Монографии, изданные в издательстве Российской Академии Естествознания

БИОГЕОЦЕНОЛОГИЯ НА АНГЛИЙСКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ

Жумабекова Б. К., Рамазанова А. С.,

Chapter 1. BIOGEOCENOLOGY AS A SCIENCE OF BIOGEOCENOSISES

Essential targets:

By the end of this chapter you should be able to answer the following questions:

 What is significance of the biogeocenology?

 What scientists contributed to the development of the biogeocenology?

 What questions does biogeocenology consider?

Read the given text and make essential assignments. Divide this text into the parts. Give the title for each part.

Берілген мәтінді оқып шығыңдар және қажетті тапсырмаларды орындаңдар. Мәтінді бөлімдерге бөліңдер. Әрбір бөлімге атау беріңдер.

Прочитайте данный текст и выполните необходимые задания. Разделите текст на части. Озаглавьте каждую часть.

Biogeocenology is the science dealing with interrelated and interacting complexes of living and inert nature (biogeocenosis) and their planetary aggregate (the biogeosphere). The term “biogeocenology” arose in geobotany but has subsequently developed as a common subject of biological and geographical sciences, reflecting the interdisciplinary level of the study of living nature [1].

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Photo 1. V. N. Sukachev [2]

The founder of biogeocenology was V. N. Sukachev (Photo1). In a number of works beginning in 1940 he defined the basic concepts of biogeocenology, its theoretical and practical tasks, its ties with other sciences, and the program and direction of research.

An important role in the development of modern biogeocenology was played by the works of the Russian scientists V. V. Dokuchaev, G. F. Morozov, and R. I. Abolin, who established the idea of the interconnected quality of the phenomena of nature, and by V. I. Vernadsky, who discovered the enormous planetary significance of organisms (living matter) (Photo 2-3) [1].

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Photo 2. V. V. Dokuchaev [3]

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Photo 3. V. I. Vernadsky [4]

The questions under investigation in biogeocenology include research on the structure, properties, and functions of the components of the biogeocenosis and the transcription of the mechanism of their relationships; study of the flows of matter and energy in them, as well as the proportion and form of the participation of their components in the material and energy metabolism of the entire complex, and particularly in its biological productivity; study of the transformation by some components of the states, properties, and functioning of other components; determination of their role in the change and dynamics of the biogeocenosis; determination of the reaction of the components and the biogeocenosis as a whole to spontaneous changes and the economic activities of man; study of the stability of biogeocenosis and their regulatory mechanisms; and research on the relationships and interactions both between adjacent biogeocenosis and between the more remote ones, which provide the unity of the biogeosphere and its major parts.

These problems can be solved only with the participation of a broad range of specialists (botanists, zoologists, physiologists, microbiologists, soil scientists, climatologists, biochemists, and others) in research. These problems require extended periods of research, the use of experimentation (both under natural conditions and on models), the extensive application of quantitative methods of study, and the use of mathematical analysis and statistical processing of the data.

A successful solution to the problems of biogeocenology determines the possible accuracy of the prediction of the consequences of man’s interference in the course of natural processes, the possibility of directed regulation of the relationships and interactions of the components in the biogeocenosis in order to obtain the greatest and most generally beneficial economic effect (chiefly a rise in biological productivity), and the choice of ways for the economic use of the material and energy resources of the biogeosphere and its parts. The significance of biogeocenology is particularly great for forestry and agricultural practice. It is also of high methodological significance for the study of man’s environment on the earth and for space science, the protection of industrial articles, food products, and feed from damage by the biological components of the biosphere, the conservation of nature, and so on. Biogeocenology is closely related to landscape science, soil science, climatology, biocenology, microbiology, and biogeochemistry [1].

Glossary of essential terms / Негізгі терминдер глоссарийі / Глоссарий основных терминов

English term

Kazakh equivalent

Russian equivalent

1

accuracy

дәлдігі

точность

2

adjacent

көрші

соседний

3

beneficial

тиімді

выгодный

4

biogeocenology

биогеоценология

биогеоценология

5

boundary

шекара

граница

6

circulation of water

судың циркуляциясы

циркуляция воды

7

closely

тығыз

тесно

8

consequence

салдары

последствие

9

consumption

тұтыну

потребление

10

conversion

түрленуі

преобразование

11

damage

залал

ущерб

12

death

өлім

гибель

13

determination

анықтама

определение

14

dimensionless

өлшемсіз

безразмерный

15

direction

бағыт

направление

16

energy exchange

энергетикалық алмасу

энергетический

обмен

17

enormous

үп - үлкен

огромный

18

interacting

өзара әрекеттесетін

взаимодействующий

19

interrelated

өзара байланысты

взаимосвязанный

20

landscape science

ландшафттану

ландшафтоведение

21

methodological

significance

әдіснамалық маңызы

методологическое значение

22

participation

қатысу

участие

23

particularity

ерекшелік

особенность

24

planetary significance of organisms

ағзалардың планетарлық маңызы

планетарное значение организмов

25

plant community

өсімдіктер тобы

растительное

сообщество

26

property

қасиет

свойство

27

protection of

industrial articles

өнеркәсіп бұйымдарын қорғау

защита промышленных изделий

28

redistribution

қайта бөлу

перераспределение

29

research

зерттеу

исследование

30

soil science

топырақтану

почвоведение

31

solved

шешілген

решенный

32

statistical processing of the data

мағлұматтардың статистикалық өңдеуі

статистическая

обработка данных

33

subsequently

соңынан

впоследствии

34

successful

табысты

успешный

35

to cleave

ыдырату

расщеплять

36

to decompose

шіріту

разлагать

37

to discover

табу

обнаружить

38

to establish

жасау

создавать

39

to maintain

қолдау

поддерживать

40

to obtain

алу

получать

41

transpiration

булану

испарение

42

weathering

желдетілу

выветривание

Questions:

 What science is concerned with a biogeocenology?

 What environmental scientists do you know?

 What is the subject of the biogeocenology?

Key phrases and sentences / Түйінді сөздер мен сөйлемдер / Ключевые фразы и предложения

1. … is a science concerned with the study of …/ … – … зерттейтін ғылым/ ... наука, занимающаяся изучением ...

2. It is (closely) related to …/ Ол … (тығыз) байланысты / Она (тесно) связана с…

3. It considers …/ Ол … деп санайды/ Она считает…

4. The term «…» was coined by … in …/ «…» термині ... ж. ...ұсынылды/ Термин «…» был предложен … в … г.

I. Find English and Kazakh equivalents to the following word combinations / Келесі сөз тіркестерінің ағылшын және қазақша баламаларын табыңдар / Найдите английский и казахский эквиваленты для следующих словосочетаний.

Russian term

English equivalent

Kazakh equivalent

1

аутэкологическое

направление

   

2

биологическая

продуктивность

   

3

биологический

компонент биосферы

   

4

ботанико-географическое открытие

   

5

великое географическое открытие

   

6

поток веществ

и энергии

   

7

синэкологическое

направление

   

8

устойчивость

биогеоценозов

   

9

участок земной

поверхности

   

10

энергетический

метаболизм

   

II. True or False / Шын және жалған / Правда или Ложь.

1. Biogeocenology connected only with ecology.

2. Biogeocenology studying the functioning of biogeocenosises.

3. The founder of the biogeocenology – V.I. Vernadsky.

4. Aristotle described the appearance and habits of over 500 species of animals.

5. Theophrastus described about 100 species of plants.

6. Carolus Linnaeus classified plants and animals according to similarities in form.

7. Francesco Redi was an Italian scientist, physician, academician and poet.

8. P. S. Pallas as a proponent of deism materialistically considered natural phenomena.

III. Fill in the table (by textbook B. K. Zhumabekova “Biogeocenology”) / Кестені толтырыңдар (Б.Қ. Жұмабекованың «Биогеоценология» оқулығы бойынша) / Заполните таблицу (по учебнику Б. К. Жумабекова «Биогеоценология».).

The history of the biogeocenology

Period

The stages of development of the biogeocenology

     

IV. Read the given text and make essential marks / Берілген мәтінді оқып шығыңдар және қажетті белгілерді қойыңдар / Прочитайте данный текст и сделайте необходимые отметки.

V

I know this information

+

This information is important

-

I do not agree with this information

?

I have questions on this information

Discuss your marks results in group and make a conclusion / Өз белгілегендеріңнің нәтижесін топта талқылаңдар және қорытынды жасаңдар / Обсудите результаты вашей оценки в группе и сделайте вывод.

Information

Objectivity
of information

Biogeocenosis is an interrelated complex of living and inert components associated with each other by material and energy exchange; one of the most complex systems in nature.

 

Among the living components of the biogeocenosis are autotrophic organisms (photosynthesizing green plants and chemosynthesizing microorganisms) and heterotrophic organisms (animals, fungi, many bacteria, and viruses), and among the inert components are the atmosphere layer around the earth, with its gas and thermal resources and solar energy; and the soil, with its water and mineral resources and, in part, the weathering crust (water in the case of an aquatic biogeocenosis).

 

Each biogeocenosis maintains both uniformity (homogeneous, or more often mosaically homogeneous) of the composition and structure of its components and the character of the material and energy exchange between them.

 

The higher and lower green plants, which provide the basic mass of living matter, play a particularly important role in biogeocenosis. They produce the primary organic materials – the matter and energy that are used by the plants themselves and are transmitted along food chains to all heterotrophic organisms.

 

The role of chemotrophic microorganisms in the biogeocenosis is less significant. In terms of the specific features of their activities, heterotrophs in a biogeocenosis can be divided into consumers, which transform and partially break down the organic matter of living organisms, and decomposers or destroyers (fungi, bacteria), which decompose compound organic substances in dead organisms or their parts to simple mineral compounds.

 

In the functioning of a biogeocenosis, a great role is played by soil organisms such as saprophages, which feed on the organic remains of dead plants; and also soil microorganisms (fungi and bacteria), which decompose and mineralize these remains. To a significant degree, the structure of the soil, the formation of humus, the content of nitrogen in the soil, the conversion of a number of mineral substances, and many other soil properties depend upon their activity.

 

Without the heterotrophs, the completion of the biological circulation of matter, the existence of autotrophs, and the biogeocenosis itself would not be possible. The inert components of the biogeocenosis serve as a source of energy and primary materials (gases, water, and minerals).

 

The boundaries of a biogeocenosis can be traced from many of its components, but more often they coincide with the boundaries of the plant communities (phytocenosis). The mass of the biogeocenosis is not homogeneous either in terms of composition or the state of its components or in terms of the conditions and results of their biogeocenotic activity. This mass is differentiated into the aboveground, underground, and underwater parts which in turn are divided into elementary vertical structures—biogeohorizons, which are very specific in terms of composition, structure, and the state of the living and inert components.

 

The concept of a biogeocenosis was introduced by V. N. Sukachev (1940). This was the logical development of the ideas of the Russian scientists V. V. Dokuchaev, G. F. Morozov, G. N. Vysotsky, and others concerning the relationships of living and inert bodies of nature, as well as the ideas of V. I. Vernadsky concerning the planetary role of living organisms.

 

According to V. N. Sukachev, a biogeocenosis is close to the ecosystem of the English phytocenologist A. Tansley but differs by the definition of its content [5].

 

V. Fill in the table / Кестені толтырыңдар / Заполните таблицу.

Scientists who contributed to the development of the biogeocenology

Scientists

Brief biography

Contribution

to biogeocenology

V. N. Sukachev

   

V. V. Dokuchaev

   

V. I. Vernadsky

   

R. I. Abolin

   

G. F. Morozov

   

J. Kuderin

   

Kh. Dosmukhamedov

   

N. V. Dylis

   

SUMMARY

Biogeocenology is a scientific discipline that explores the structure and functioning of ecosystems, industry knowledge at the interface of biology (ecology) and geography. Biogeocenology grew out of geobotany, but subsequently developed at the junction of biological and geographical Sciences, reflecting the integrated study of living nature. Every year the relevance of the biogeocenotic increases due to rapidly changing environmental conditions, increased anthropogenic factor and the need to use a scientific approach in the organization of environmental activities.

missing image file Topics for essay:

1. Scientific and practical application of biogeocenology.

2. The relationship of the biogeocenology with other sciences.

3. Biogeocenology and sustainable development.

4. Modern problems of biogeocenology.

5. Biography of V. N. Sukachev.

6. Biography of V. I. Vernadsky.

7. Biography of J. Kuderin.

8. Structure of biogeocenosis.

9. Properties of biogeocenosis.

10. Biogeocenosis and Ecosystem (similarities and differences).

Essay Requirements.

 File Type: Essay must be submitted as a MS Word file (.doc or .docx).

 File Name: Please title the essay file as follows, the presenter’s entire last name, followed by the first initial of their first name

 Page Format: 8.5″ x 11″ page with 1-inch margins and 12-point Times New Roman font.

 Page Limit: 1 page for complete essay.

 Title: The essay title should be in all CAPITAL letters.

 The structure of the essay: Beginning → Middle → End

missing image file References:

1. The free dictionary // http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Biogeo cenology

2. Сукачев Владимир Николаевич // http://files.school-collection.edu.ru/ dlrstore/

3. Профессор В. В. Докучаев // http://files.school-collection.edu.ru/

4. Владимир Иванович Вернадский, ученый и мыслитель // http://chelreglib.ru/ru/news/281/

5. The free dictionary // http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Biogeo cenosis


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