Научная электронная библиотека
Монографии, изданные в издательстве Российской Академии Естествознания

БИОГЕОЦЕНОЛОГИЯ НА АНГЛИЙСКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ

Жумабекова Б. К., Рамазанова А. С.,

Chapter 13. PROTECTION AND RATIONAL USE OF BIOGEOCENOSISES

Essential targets:

By the end of this text you should be able to discuss about:

 Basic principles of Environmental Protection;

 Active and passive methods of environment protection.

Work in pairs. Read the given text. Make two questions. Ask these questions to your pair and answer the pair’ questions. Choose the most interesting question / Жұппен жұмыс. Мәтінді оқып шығыңдар. Екі сұрақ құрастрыңдар. Сұрақтарыңызды өз серіктесіңізге қойыңдар және серіктесіңнің сұрағына жауап беріңдер. Қызықты деген сұрақты таңдап алыңдар / Работа в парах. Прочитайте текст. Составьте два вопроса. Задайте эти вопросы вашему партнеру и ответьте на вопросы партнеров. Выберете самый интересный вопрос.

Doc2.pdf Basic Principles of Environmental Protection

Environmental Protection shall be based on the following basic principles:

 the priority of the protection of the lives and health of people, the preservation and restoration of an Environment favorable for the life, labor, and recreation of the population;

 the provision of Ecological Safety and restoration of violated natural Ecosystems on territories with an unfavorable ecological situation;

 the rational use and renewal of Natural Resources, the gradual introduction of fees for the Use of Resources, and the introduction of economic incentives for Environmental Protection;

 ensuring the preservation of biological diversity and environmental objects of special ecological, scientific, and cultural value;

 state regulation and state control over the inevitability of liability for violations of environmental legislation;

 the prevention of damage to the Environment and assessment of any possible effect on the Environment;

 the active and democratic participation of the population, public associations, and local self-administrating agencies for Environmental Protection;

 international cooperation in Environmental Protection on the basis of international law.

Any universal methods, that considerably decide (solve) this problem now does not exist. A method, that gives beautiful results in one conditions can be completely not suitable in others. It appears by most effective usually connection of the several methods which have been rationally picked up concerning to this or that concrete case. All methods can be divided in two groups: active and passive. Result definitions and examples. The active methods directly influence on a source of pollution. Their essence consists in improvement existing and development new technological processes and equipment. The passive methods carry protective character. Use of these methods is not connected to influence on a source of pollution. On a modern level of development of technology of application of passive methods is the basic means struggle with pollution of an environment.

The active methods of struggle with pollution of biosphere are most progressive, because allow maximum to lower weight and concentration material or level of power pollution acting in biosphere.

Development of active methods of protection requires not only development of new technological processes, but also to balance them with by development of technology and equipment, that prevents emissions or limiting them to allowable levels.

By the basic directions, on which these methods develop, is:

- Minimization offcuts of manufacture;

- Replacement toxic offcuts not toxic;

- Replacement not reutilizable offcuts reutilizable;

- Creation little offcuts (without offcuts) technology.

The application of criteria, pertaining to the environment and the rational use of energy, in all planning processes and decisions taken that could affect the environment. Rational use of resources, minimizing of consumption of water, paper and energy; reducing the generation of waste and emissions; favoring recycling and looking for eco-efficient solutions [1-2].

Glossary of essential terms / Негізгі терминдер глоссарийі / Глоссарий основных терминов

English term 

Kazakh equivalent

Russian equivalent

1

equipment

жабдық

оборудование

2

implementing

іске асыру

реализация

3

improvement

жетілдірушілік

улучшение

4

labor

еңбек

труд

5

population

халық

население

6

renewal

жанарту

возобновление

7

to replace

ауыстыру

заменять

8

to require

талап ету

требовать

9

to violate

бұзу

нарушать

10

value

құндылық

ценность

Questions:

 What are active methods of environment protection?

 What are passive methods of environment protection?

 What are the principles of environmental protection?

Key phrases and sentences / Түйінді сөздер мен сөйлемдер / Ключевые фразы и предложения

1. Environmental protection is …/ Қоршаған ортаны қорғау дегеніміз …/ Охрана окружающей среды это ...

2. Environmental protection is important for … and …/ Қоршаған ортаны қорғау … және ... үшін маңызды болып табылады / Охрана окружающей среды имеет важное значение для … и ….

3. Rational use is …/ Ұтымды пайдалану … білдіреді/ Рациональное использование означает …

I. Find English and Russian equivalents to the following word combinations / Келесі сөз тіркестерінің ағылшынша және орысша баламаларын табыңдар / Найдите английский и русский эквиваленты для следующих словосочетаний.

Kazakh term

English

equivalent

Russian equivalent

адам денсаулығы

   

экологиялық қауіпсіздік

   

мемлекеттік реттеу

   

халық қатысуы

   

қоғамдық бірлестік

   

халықаралық ынтымақтастық

   

қоршаған ортаға әсер ету

   

мемлекеттік бақылау

   

II. Translate into English and Kazakh without a dictionary. Complement the text / Сөздікті пайдаланбай ағылшын және қазақ тіліне аударыңдар. Мәтінді толықтырыңдар / Переведите на английский и казахский языки без словаря. Дополните текст.

Охрана окружающей среды и задачи восстановления природных ресурсов должны предусматривать:

• локальный и глобальный логический мониторинг, т.е. измерение и контроль;

• состояния важнейших характеристик состояния окружающей среды, концентрации;

• вредных веществ в атмосфере, воде, почве и т.д.

III. Using the systematic and alphabetic catalogues of the library of the Institute, make a card index of literature on the topic of the lecture / Институттың жүйелі және алфавитті каталогтерін пайдалана отырып, дәріс тақырыбы бойынша әдебиеттер картотекасын жасаңдар / Используя систематический и алфавитный каталоги библиотеки Института, составьте картотеку литературы по теме лекции.

IV. Group work (three groups). In groups develop measures for the protection of biogeocenosises. Choose five main steps for the protection of biogeocenosises / Топпен жұмыс (үш топ). Топта биогеоценоздарды қорғау шараларын ойластырыңдар. Биогеоценоздарды қорғау бойынша негізгі бес шараны таңдап алыңдар / Групповая работа (три группы). В группах разработайте меры охраны биогеоценозов. Выберите пять основных мер по охране биогеоценозов.

V. Answer the question: Why do you think in need of protection of not only species but also the biogeocenosises? / Сұраққа жауап беріңдер: Қалай ойлайсыз, не себептен түрлерді ғана емес, сонымен қатар биогеоценоздарды да қорғау керек? / Ответьте на вопрос: Как Вы думаете, почему в охране нуждаются не только виды, но и биогеоценозы?

SUMMARY

Environmental Protection is based on several principles. All methods can be divided in two groups:

Active methods are the most progressive. The active methods directly influence on a source of pollution;

The passive methods carry protective character. Use of these methods is not connected to influence on a source of pollution.

missing image file Topics for essay:

1. Classification of natural resources.

2. Forest resources. The value. The problems of their: protection and rational use.

3. Water resources. The value. The problems of their: protection and rational use.

4. Mineral resources. The value. The problems of their: protection and rational use.

5. Energy resources solar and wind. The value. The problems of their: protection and rational use.

6. Land resources. The value. The problems of their: protection and rational use.

7. Resourcing.

8. Natural resources of Kazakhstan. Protection and rational use.

9. The world’s natural resources. Protection and rational use.

10. Problems of use of natural resources.

missing image file References:

1. Climate Change Coordination Centre // http://www.climate.kz/eng/?m=html&cid=46

2. Environment // https://corporate.nh-hoteles.es/en/corporate-responsibility-and-sustainability/csr-management/environment/environmental-policy


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