Научная электронная библиотека
Монографии, изданные в издательстве Российской Академии Естествознания

БИОГЕОЦЕНОЛОГИЯ НА АНГЛИЙСКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ

Жумабекова Б. К., Рамазанова А. С.,

Chapter 15. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH IN KAZAKHSTAN

Essential targets:

By the end of this text you should be able to answer the following questions:

 What is environmental security?

 What are the environmental problems in Kazakhstan?

 What types of research are there in the field of environmental protection?

Read the given text. Students are divided into three groups. One group is working without a dictionary, the other with a single language, and the third with a bilingual dictionary. Compare the discussion of all three versions of the translation / Мәтінді оқып шығыңдар. Оқушылар үш топқа бөлінеді. Бір топ сөздіксіз, екіншісі біртілді сөздікпен, үшіншісі екі тілді сөздікпен жұмыс істейді. Аударманың барлық үш долбарының талқылауы салыстырылады / Прочитайте текст. Учащиеся делятся на три группы. Одна группа работает без словаря, другая с одноязычным, а третья с двуязычным словарём. Сравниваются обсуждения всех трех версий перевода.

Environmental safety is one of the key strategic components of the national security of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the most important aspect of the government’s priorities. How have reasonably believed by many domestic and foreign researchers, environmental pollution has become a serious obstacle to socio-economic development of Kazakhstan. The change in environmental quality is directly related to the development of “dirty” technologies and extensive agriculture. In the Republic there was a very intense radiation environment, which leads to an increase in the incidence of and mortality from cancer, immune system disorders and genetic status of the population. The threat of radiation situation in the state is the large number of spent radioactive sources that have not undergone neutralization and conservation and is able to create a serious emergency. One of the most pressing environmental problems at this stage is the state of water resources of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The presence and condition of water resources is a vital factor that has a decisive influence on the economic development of the country. At the same time, the General condition and quality of water resources in the Republic of Kazakhstan is much worse and intensive pollution can have a devastating impact on the environment. Under the influence of economic activity has changed significantly hydrochemical, hydrobiological health of almost all the rivers in Kazakhstan. Acute environmental problem of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Republic of Uzbekistan is a permanent increase in intake of Syrdarya river from Uzbekistan. Reduce water withdrawal from Uzbekistan will allow you to solve a number of social, economic and environmental problems, such as the increase of the animal and plant world, the reduction of morbidity associated with the respiratory system, the increase in the inflow into the Aral sea [1].

Questions:

 What is environmental safety?

 What does influence the environmental pollution in the country?

 What is the state of water resources in the Republic of Kazakhstan?

Key phrases and sentences / Түйінді сөздер мен сөйлемдер / Ключевые фразы и предложения

1. Environmental studies is a multidisciplinary academic field – which … studies/

2. Экологиялық зерттеулер … зерттейтін ғылыми пәнаралық сала болып табылады/ Экологические исследования это междисциплинарная научная область, которая изучает …

3. Environmental studies brings together the principles of …/ Экологиялық зерттеулер …, …, … және … принциптерін біріктіреді/ Экологические исследования объединяют принципы …

4. Environmental studies include …/ Экологиялық зерттеулер ... қамтиды/ Экологические исследования включают …

Glossary of essential terms / Негізгі терминдер глоссарийі / Глоссарий основных терминов

English term

Kazakh equivalent

Russian equivalent

1

conversion

өңдеу

переработка

2

disposal

зиянсыз ету

обезвреживание

3

effects

ықпал ету

влияние

4

elaboration

жобалау

разработка

5

environmental safety

экологиялық қауыпсыздық

экологическая

безопасность

6

identifying

табу

выявление

7

introduction

енгізу

внедрение

8

obstacle

тосқауыл

препятствие

9

rationale

негіздеме

обоснование

10

the field of environment protection

қоршаған ортаны қорғау

охрана окружающей среды

I. Fill in the chart / Сызбаны толтырыңдар / Заполните схему.

The objectives of the environmental science research

missing image file

II. Translated into English and Russian / Ағылшын және орыс тіліне аударыңдар / Переведите на английский и русский языки.

A. Экологиялық ғылымның далалық, лабораториялық және экспери-менттік зерттеу әдістері бар.

B. Далалық зерттеу әдісі - далалық жағдайда жүргізіледі.

C. Далалык материалдар лабораториялық жағдайда өңделеді.

D. Экологияда математикалық әдістер мен модельдеу жиі қол-даны-лады.

E. Зерттеу объектілері лабораториялық жағдайда эксперимент арқылы тексеріліп, бақылаулар жүргізіледі.

F. Зерттеу объектісінің сипатына қарай далалық, лабораториялық және эксперименттік зерттеулердің бағыттары, зерттеу әдістері өзгеріп отырады.

G. Экологияда математикалық әдістер мен модельдеу жиі қол-даны-лады.

H. Экологиялық модельдеудің мақсаты - теориялық түжырымдарды, биологиялық жүйелердің жүмыс істеу функцияларын жасанды жолмен тәжірибе арқылы тексеру.

III. Fill in the table / Кестені толтырыңдар / Заполните таблицу.

The main types of research

Type

Objectives

Methods

     
     

IV. Fill in the chart. Using one of the methods conducted their environmental study. Describe the results / Кестені толтырыңдар. әдістердің бірін пайдаланып, өздеріңнің экологиялық зерттеуін жүргізіңдер. Нәтижелерін сипаттаңдар / Заполните таблицу. Используя один из методов, проведите свое экологическое исследование. Опишите результаты.

The methods of environmental studies

missing image file

V. Prepare a report on the topic: “The Scientists who conducted ecological studies in Kazakhstan” / «Қазақстанда экологиялық зерттеулер жүргізген ғалымдар» тақырыбына баяндама жасаңдар / Подготовьте доклад на тему: «Ученые, которые проводили экологические исследования в Казахстане».

SUMMARY

Environmental safety is one of the key strategic components of the national security of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the most important aspect of the government’s priorities. Environmental pollution has become a serious obstacle to socio-economic development of Kazakhstan.

missing image file Topics for essay:

1. History of science – Ecology.

2. Aim and objectives of modern ecology

3. Connection of ecology with other sciences.

4. Geoecology as a scientific discipline.

5. Scientists who made a significant contribution to the understanding of evolution and ecology.

6. Environmental research of the air environment.

7. Environmental research of the soil.

8. Environmental research of the water.

9. The main methods of environmental research.

10. The importance of environmental research.

missing image file Reference:

KAZISS // www.kisi.kz /img/docs/

LABORATORY WORK 5

The theme: The Effect of Acid Rain on the Germination of Seeds.

The aim: To design and to conduct an experiment to test the effect of acid rain on the germination of seeds. Use the data from their experiment to explain their conclusions, and also read a passage on acid rain.

Materials and equipment: Sulfuric Acid (diluted), Filter paper, 2 Petri Dishes (per student group), Graduated Cylinder/Pipettes, Seeds (Vegetable), pH paper, Lab Sheets, An area in the classroom for the seeds to germinate.

Acid Rain

Background Information

Acid rain is formed when the combustion of fossil fuels release gases containing nitrogen and sulfur compounds into the atmosphere.

Problem

You are an employee of a laboratory. A town board has sent you the following case. A company would like to open in their town. The company carries out industrial processes that involve the burning of fossil fuels. The company would like to build their factory on property adjacent to a vegetable farm. The owner of the farm states that the factory would cause acid rain and the subsequent destruction of his crops. The company states that the gases released will have no effect on the farmer’s crops.

Develop a plan to test the effect of acid rain on the germination of vegetable seeds. Depending on your results, the town board will decide whether to allow the factory to be built on the land or elsewhere. You will have access to the following materials: water, dilute sulfuric acid, filter paper, seeds, and Petri dishes. Your plan should include a hypothesis, procedure, and data table. The plan should mention how you will differentiate between experimental and control groups, as well as independent and dependent variables. Also, you must take into account safety procedures when completing your experiment. When complete, you should submit an advisory to the town, as to which course of action they should take.

Procedure:

Plan

Name: _______________________________ Date: _________________ Period: ____________

Group Members: ________________________________________

________________________________________

________________________________________

Acid Rain Laboratory Experimental Design

Problem (What question are you trying to answer?):____________________

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Hypothesis: ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Experimental & Control Groups (How many will be in each group & how will they be treated differently from each other?)

Control Group

Experimental Group

   

Variables

Independent Variable: __________________________________________ Dependent Variable: ___________________________________________ Constants: ____________________________________________________

Safety (What guidelines should be followed?): ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Materials:

On your own paper you will need to create a procedure, data table, data analysis, and conclusion to be handed in as part of your final grade for this experiment.

Full Text: COPYRIGHT 2002 Gale, COPYRIGHT 2005 Gale, Cengage Learning.

Source Citation

“Acid Rain.” World of Earth Science. Ed. K. Lee Lerner and Brenda Wilmoth Lerner. Detroit: Gale, 2011. Gale Science In Context. Web. 25 July 2012.

Document URL

https://blogs.cornell.edu/cibt/labs-activities/labs/acid-rain-lab-katherine-betrus-2/

Gale Document Number: GALE|CV2641950002

A trade-off can occur when a decision is made. In a trade-off, one would consider less of one thing in order to gain more of another. During the case study we just completed, the town board was most likely was considering a trade-off. What trade-off do you think the town board was considering for the farmer vs. the factory?

1. Having read the passage about acid rain, do you think that not allowing factories to build near farm fields is the only solution to acid rain? Give evidence from the passage that describes alternative means of  controlling acid rain.

2. Using evidence from the passage, refute the following claims made at the Noville Town Board meeting.

a) “Who cares about acid rain? I live in New York State, not California.”

b) “I live near the town lake. It won’t harm the fish so let’s build the factory. The farmer can move.”

c) “As long as there won’t be any damage to the animals that live in the forest around the town, they should build the factory.”

3. Refer to the last paragraph of the passage and your knowledge of natural selection.

• Does the presence of a specific fungus on the roots of some trees give them an evolutionary advantage? Explain using evidence from the text.

• In an area with severe acid rain, how would you expect the population of trees with fungi growing on their roots to change versus population of the trees without the fungi on their roots?

TOPICS OF SEMINAR

Seminar 13

Chapter 13. Protection and rational use of biogeocenosises.

1. Environmental monitoring.

2. Conversion of ecotope in biogeocenosis for their economic use.

3. Problems of protection and rational use of individual components of biogeocenosis.

4. Problems of protection and rational use of ecosystems in Kazakhstan.

Seminar 14

Chapter 14. Sustainable development.

1. The aims and objectives of sustainable development.

2. Indicators of sustainable development.

3. Sustainable development of cities.

Seminar 15

Chapter 15. Environmental research in Kazakhstan.

1. The environment of living organisms.

2. Environmental factors.

3. The influence of unfavourable environmental factors on human health.

Recommended references:

1. Volterra, V. (1926). “Fluctuations in the abundance of a species considered mathematically”. Nature 118: 558–560.

2. Программа и методика биогеоценологических исследований. М.: Наука, 1974. С.14-23.

3. Современная наука // http://5fanru.blogspot.com/2012/08/blog-post_ 6978.html

4. Climate chance coordination centre // http://www.climate.kz/eng/?m= html&cid=46

5. Ecosystema. ru // http://www.ecosystema.ru/07referats/monitor/monitor.htm

TASKS FOR THE CONTROL WORK 5

1. Translated into English the following words: восстановление, сохранение, возобновление, экологическая безопасность, нарушение, достижение, реализация, ценность, ресурс.

2. Fill in the table.

The kinds of changes in the biogeocenosises

Changes

Examples

Cyclical

 

Daily

 

Seasonal

 

Annual

 

3. Describe the types of ecological successions. Justify your answer.

4. Write five ways of biodiversity conservation.

_____________________________

_____________________________

_____________________________

_____________________________

_____________________________

5. Make a crossword on the theme “Global environmental problems” (10 questions).


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