1. Read the text from Columbia Encyclopedia and say if these sentences are True or False. Correct the false ones.
American mathematician Claude Shannon articulated two chess-playing algorithms: brute force, and selective mode.
In 1989 Hitech, a program developed at Carnegie-Mellon University, defeated former U.S. champion Arnold Denker in a four-game match.
In 1990 the English computer Mephisto-Portrose became the first program to defeat a former world champion.
Gary Kasparov in 1997 became the first reigning world champion to lose to a computer in a game played with regulation time controls.
IBM AI computer, Watson, competed in 2011 on the «Jeopardy!» television quiz show.
Artificial intelligence (AI) is the use of computers to model the behavioral aspects of human reasoning and learning.
In the public eye advances in chess-playing computer programs were symbolic of early progress in AI. In 1948 British mathematician Alan Turing developed a chess algorithm for use with calculating machines. Ten years later American mathematician Claude Shannon articulated two chess-playing algorithms: brute force, in which all possible moves and their consequences are calculated as far into the future as possible; and selective mode, in which only the most promising moves and their more immediate consequences are evaluated.
In 1988 Hitech, a program developed at Carnegie-Mellon University, defeated former U.S. champion Arnold Denker in a four-game match, becoming the first computer to defeat a grandmaster. A year later, Gary Kasparov, the reigning world champion, bested Deep Thought, a program developed by the IBM Corp., in a two-game exhibition. In 1990 the German computer Mephisto-Portrose became the first program to defeat a former world champion; while playing an exhibition of 24 simultaneous games, Anatoly Karpov bested 23 human opponents but lost to the computer.
Kasparov in 1996 became the first reigning world champion to lose to a computer in a game played with regulation time controls; the Deep Blue computer, developed by the IBM Corp., won the first game of the match, lost the second, drew the third and fourth, and lost the fifth and sixth. Deep Blue used the brute force approach, evaluating more than 100 billion chess positions each turn while looking six moves ahead; it coupled this with the most efficient chess evaluation software yet developed and an extensive library of chess games it could analyze as part of the decision process.
Subsequent matches between Vladimir Kramnik and Deep Fritz (2002, 2006) and Kasparov and Deep Junior (2003) resulted in two ties and a win for the programs. Unlike Deep Blue, which was a specially designed computer, these more recent computer challengers were chess programs running on powerful personal computers. Such programs have become an important tool in chess, and are used by chess masters to analyze games and experiment with new moves.
Another notable IBM AI computer, Watson, competed in 2011 on the «Jeopardy!» television quiz show, defeating two human champions. Watson, about 100 times faster than Deep Blue, was designed to process questions in natural human language (as opposed to simple commands), making sense of the quirky questions’ complexity and ambiguity, and to search an extensive database to quickly provide the correct answers. Watson is a prototype for programs or services that can act as knowledgeable assistants, or even human substitutes, in such different fields as medicine, catalog sales, and computer technical support.
2. Fill in the verbs from the text.
1. Artificial intelligence is the use of computers to … the behavioral aspects of human reasoning and learning.
2. In 1948 British mathematician Alan Turing … a chess algorithm for use with calculating machines.
3. The Deep Blue computer, developed by the IBM Corp., … the first game of the match, … the second, … the third and fourth, and … the fifth and sixth.
4. Deep Blue used the brute force approach, … more than 100 billion chess positions each turn while looking six moves ahead.
5. Watson, about 100 times faster than Deep Blue, was designed to … questions in natural human language.
3. Visit the Web sites and develop a Timeline on the history of Artificial Intelligence development.
4. Read the text ROBOTS and match the terms 1-7 with the statements A-G.
Man-like machines, whose basic components are similar to a human body.
Electric or pneumatic motors or systems which create the movement.
A computer-programmed machine that performs actions, manipulates objects, etc. in a precise and, in many cases, repetitive way.
Sensors, which transmit information to the central system in order to locate objects or adjust movements.
Mechanical links, which connect movable parts.
The brain that directs the actions.
Hands, usually tools or grippers.
A robot is a computer-programmed machine that performs actions, manipulates objects, etc. in a precise and, in many cases, repetitive way.
Robots may be automata, or man-like machines, whose basic components are similar to a human body.
They have mechanical links, joints, which connect their movable parts. Their heart and muscles are the electric or pneumatic motors or systems, the actuators, which create the movement. Robots also have hands, usually tools or grippers, called end effectors. They may be equipped with cameras or infrared controls, sensors, which transmit information to the central system in order to locate objects or adjust movements. Finally, robots depend on a computer system, the brain that directs the actions.
5. Complete the following article with words from the text ROBOTS.
ACTION ROBOT TO COPY HUMAN BRAIN
Scientists at Aberystwyth University are working on a machine which they hope will recognize objects with cameras that will work as 1_________, and retrieve objects with an arm that will be its 2 ____________.
Although the arm will have 3 ________ that will link its muscles and an electric motor that will be the 4 ________, this new 5 ________ won’t move like a human, i.e. it won’t be like the 6 _________ of science-fiction films Star Wars C3PO. It will be desk based: no walking, or climbing stairs.
The team hopes to discover how the brain performs ‘multi-tasking’ and to use that information to develop the 7 _________ to create a robot that can think for itself.
6. Read the text about Artificial Intelligence. Complete the extracts with the words from the text.
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the science that tries to recreate the human thought process and build machines that perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. It has several applications.
Androids are anthropomorphic robots designed to look and behave like a human being. Most androids can walk, talk and understand human speech. Some react to gestures and voice inflection. Some ‘learn’ from the environment: they store information and adapt their behaviour according to a previous experience.
Expert systems is the term given to computer software that mimics human reasoning, by using a set of rules to analyze data and reach conclusions. Some expert systems help doctors diagnose illnesses based on symptoms.
Neural networks are a new concept in computer programming, designed to replicate the human ability to handle ambiguity by learning from trial and error. They use silicon neurons to imitate the functions of brain cells and usually involve a great number of processors working at the same time.
The term 1 ___________ is defined as the automation of intelligent behaviour, but can 2 ____________ really be intelligent?
3 _____________ are made of units that resemble neurons. They are often used to simulate brain activity and are effective at predicting events.
4 _________ also known as knowledge-based systems, mirror the structure of an expert’s thought.
The word robot comes from robota, meaning compulsory labour in Czech; similarly, robots are helpful in activities which are too dangerous, too boring or too precise for human beings.
For example, robotic arms, telescopic or bending arms, are widely used in the automobile industry to paint, weld and assemble car parts. Robots are also used in electronic assembly of microchips where precision of movements is essential. Surgical robots, which help human surgeons, are programmed to assist in very delicate microsurgery operations or mimic the surgeons’ movements in telesurgery operations.
Conduct a study about different spheres robots are used in. Write a report.