Научная электронная библиотека
Монографии, изданные в издательстве Российской Академии Естествознания

РЕЗЮМЕ И КЛЮЧЕВЫЕ СЛОВА НА АНГЛИЙСКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ

Chapter I.

PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS:
TYPOLOGICALLY RELEVANT PARAMETRES OF DESCRIPTION (on the basis of English, German and Swedish)

Tatiana Fedulenkova

Summary. The chapter gives a set of arguments in favour of actuality of typological studies in the field of phraseological units and their sub-systems in different languages. A number of typologically relevant features of phraseological units and their universal functions are found out. The criteria for the selection of phraseological material for the comparative-typological analysis are formulated. The necessity to use phraseological material in order to create a more complete typological language model is put forward in the paper.

Keywords: phraseological units, typological studies, comparative-typological analysis, criteria, English, German, Swedish.

Chapter II.

BIBLIICAL PHRASEOLOGISMS IN RUSSIAN AND GEORGIAN (comparative characteristics)

Zoya Adamia & Mikhail Chabashvili

Summary. The Bible is the text exclusively orthodox and canonized. That fact seems to be able to guarantee a considerable monotony and similarity of various translations of biblical phraseological units. The research however leads to the opposite conclusion. Actually Russian and Georgian translations of Biblical phraseological units appear to coincide more than Georgian and English or Russian and English ones. The phenomenon may be explained by the fact that the Georgians and the Russians keep to one direction of Christianity – Orthodoxy which has been going on for centuries and has greatly influenced on their understanding of Christian dogmas, of the role of religion in believers’ everyday life.

Keywords: phraseological units, biblical origin, comparative characteristics, Russian, Georgian, English.

Chapter III.

«PLENTY-NOT ENOUGH»: LEXICAL-SEMANTIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SEME ‘QUANTITY’
IN THE BELARUSIAN AND ENGLISH PROVERBS
(comparative analysis)

Elena Mayuk

Summary. The chapter deals with the comparative analysis of the lexical quantitative components that objectify the meaning of indefinite quantity in the Belarusian and English proverbs. Particular attention is paid to functional-semantic characteristics of the constituents that objectify indefinitely large and small quantity and make up the lexical semantic sector of the field of quantity in two structurally diverse languages. The author identifies common, universal features of quantity perception that provide an understanding between people of different linguocultures, on the one hand, and national-specific features that highlight the uniqueness of quantitative representation of each ethnic group, on the other hand.

Keywords: proverbial phraseological units, quantitative analysis, comparative-typological analysis, Belarusian, English.

Chapter IV.

NATIONAL-CULTURAL SPECIFICATION OF PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS, CHARACTERIZING WEDDING CUSTOMS
IN ENGLISH, RUSSIAN AND TATAR
(comparative research)

Dilyara Gilfanova

Summary. Each nation perceives reality in its own way, creating its vision of the world rituals and traditions through the prism of time. The attention of scientists is attracted by the studies the interaction of culture and polilinguistics. Common to these concepts are ways of forming the linguistic world, where an important role is played by imaginative perception of ritual phraseological units (PUs) of a particular cultural community’s representative. Investigation of PUs, describing the wedding rites is particularly interesting, since the wedding traditions that have been observed during the wedding ceremony from antiquity are among the most important and significant traditions for every nation, every human being. Mini-ritual texts, being a part of any culture claim to be universal, which is reflected in the allocation of basic notions and concepts, refracted different forms and means in the lexical system of languages.

Keywords: phraseological units, national and cultural specificity, comparative analysis, universals, English, Russian, Tatar.

Chapter V.

GENERAL AND SPECIFIC FEATURES IN COMPARATIVE PHRASEOLOGY OF RUSSIAN AND ENGLISH
(contrastive characteristics)

Tatiana Koykova

Summary. The chapter, dealing with contrastive analysis of comparative phraseological units in Russian and English, shows that (a) their common features are revealed by the semantics of adjectival, verbal and adverbial phraseological units and (b) their specific features mostly concern their structural organization. National peculiarities are generallly formed by the three groups of factors, namely: a) lexical-topical staff of PU prototypes; b) thematic structure of total quantity of stable comparatives in the two languages under analysis; c) nationally marked lexicon.

Keywords: comparative phraseological units, national/ cultural specificity, analysis, Russian, English.

Chapter VI.

EVALUATIVE SEMANTICS OF RUSSIAN AND ENGLISH PROVERBS BASED ON THE COMPARATIVE MODELS (comparative analysis)

Aleksey Lyzlov

Summary. The chapter deals with the comparative analysis of English and Russian proverbial systems concerning their ability to express evaluative meanings. The analysis shows that the units objectifying the models of direct and reverse evaluative scale are found both in English and in Russian proverbial mappings. They bring about different evaluative types.

Keywords: proverbial phraseological units, comparative analysis, Russian, English, evaluative meanings.

Chapter VII.

PROGNOSTIC ENTITY OF FOLK SIGNS
IN RUSSIAN AND IN GERMAN
(comparative analysis)

Maria Kulkova

Summary. The chapter presents various definitions of folk signs of the Russian and foreign authors, describes the principal functions of folk signs. Special attention is paid to the analysis of the content structure of the omens and their formal-structural organization in Russian and German. The analysis is focused on general versus specific features of the language
material under study.

Keywords: folk signs, prognostic entity, formal and structural organization, sense forming, world picture.

Chapter VIII.

ТYPOLOGIZATION OF LEXICAL AND PHRASEOLOGICAL
SUB-SYSTEMS OF THE LANGUAGE
(based on Ukrainian, Russian and English)
Svetlana Terekhova

Summary. The chapter deals with poly-paradigmal analyses of lexical and phraseological units of the Ukrainian, Russian and English Languages. Poly-paradigmal approach introduced in the research allow to additionally employing inclusion notional and associative analysis, which highlights the way native speakers of the contrasted languages conceptualize the world in typical and specific features of the compared languages. The modern approaches to the analyzed language units are characterized here. Types of the language units under analyses are defined here according to 11 criteria, such as their logical and conceptual connections, lexical meaning, grammatical characteristics, semantic shades of meaning, stylistic features, associative representations, gender markers, syntactic and syntagmatic specificity, their functions in a language and speech (in a communicative situation), derivation, etc.

Keywords: phraseocon, lexicon, phraseological units, typology, poly-padarigmatic approach, type in the language.

Chapter IX.

THE MAN BY THE MEANS OF INDIRECT NOMINATION: LANGUAGE UNIVERSALS AND UNIQUE NOTIONS
IN SLAVIC LANGUAGES
(on the basis of Russian and English)

Elena Markova

Summary. In the sphere of agentival phraseology Slavic languages demonstrate both common/ universal and specific/ unique features. The universal character of indirect-derived nomination is connected with the influence of homo-typical cognitive models, based on realization of identical cultural codes. Nevertheless, their different cultural volume testifies to the specific vision of the world by the representatives of a certain ethnos. To demonstrate the isomorphic character of code models and the specific character of image systems in the Slavic languages the author examines the phraseological material of the Russian and Czech languages nominating external (young – old) and internal (clever – foolish) dichotomies, the author also uses the material, expressing some cultural codes: floristic (including arboreal) and zoomorphic ones. Comparison of both the languages in the aspect of archetypical dichotomies and in accordance with this or that cultural code acquires also applied/ lingual-didactic importance, which is especially actual at present, when the question arises again how to improve methods of teaching the Russian language as a foreign Slavic one.

Keywords: Slavic languages, indirect-derived nomination, cultural codes, universal and ethno-specific.


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